a plant-eating macronarian sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of North America.
The Morrison Formation — a dinosaur-rich stretch of Late Jurassic rock along the eastern flank of the Rocky Mountains — has yielded a hatful of sauropods. But none has been as abundant and complete as Camarasaurus; the most common North American sauropod ever found and the only one for which all parts of the skeleton are known.
is derived from the Greek "kamara" (chamber) and "sauros" (lizard) in reference to the hollow chambers in its vertebrae which, according to E.D. Cope, were "lighter in proportion to their bulk than in any air-breathing vertebrate."
The species epithet
, means "largest" in Latin.
: Late Jurassic
: 156-151 mya
Est. max. length
: 18 meters
Est. max. hip height
: 5 meters
Est. max. weight
: 14 tons
, Camarasaurus lentus
, Camarasaurus agilis
, Camarasaurus lewisi
— from the Greek "kathetos" (perpendicular) and "saurus" (lizard), named for its presumed ability to stand erect on its rear legs — was named by Jensen in 1988 but was later assigned to Camarasaurus
as Camarasaurus lewisi
. In 2013, Mateus and Tschopp described a virtually complete second specimen from Wyoming's Howe-Stephens Quarry that had fewer features in common with Camarasaurus
than it did with Cathetosaurus
, so the latter appears to be a valid critter afterall.
(Cope, 1877), Camarasaurus leptodirus
(Cope, 1879), Caulodon diversidens
(Cope, 1877), Caulodon leptoganus
(Marsh, 1896), Camarasaurus impar
(Marsh, 1878), Camarasaurus robustus
(Marsh, 1878), Morosaurus impar
(Marsh, 1878), Morosaurus robustus
(Marsh, 1878), Pleurocoelus montanus
(Ellinger, 1950), Uintasaurus douglassi
• Marsh OC (1877) "Apatosaurus grandis
" in "Notice of new dinosaurian reptiles from the Jurassic formation
". American Journal of Science, 1st December 1877, issue 84, pages 514-516.
• Marsh OC (1889) "Morosaurus lentus
" in "Notice of new American Dinosauria
The American Journal of Science, April 1889, series 3, vol. 37, pages 331-336.
• Cope ED (August 23, 1877) "On a Gigantic Saurian from the Dakota Epoch of Colorado". Palaeontological bulletin, no. 25, pages 5-10.
• Osborn HF and Mook CC (Jan. 1921) "
Camarasaurus, Amphicoelias, and other sauropods of Cope
". Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History (vol. 3).
• Jensen JA (1988) "A fourth new sauropod dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic of the Colorado Plateau and sauropod bipedalism
". (names Cathetosaurus
• McIntosh JS, Miller WE, Stadtman KL and Gillette DD (1995) "Osteology of Camarasaurus lewisi
(Jensen, 1988)". Brigham Young University, v. 41, p. 73-116.
• Tanke DH and Carpenter K (2001) "Mesozoic Vertebrate Life
• Curry Rogers K and Wilson JA (2005) "The Sauropods: Evolution and Paleobiology
• Wings O and Sander MP (2007) "No gastric mill in sauropod dinosaurs: new evidence from analysis of gastrolith mass and function in ostriches
". Proc Biol Sci; 274(1610): 635–640.
• Foster J (2007) "Jurassic West: Dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation and their World
• Mateus O and Tschopp E (2013) "Cathetosaurus
as a valid sauropod genus and comparisons with Camarasaurus
". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Program and Abstracts, 2013. 173.
• Button DJ, Barrett PM and Rayfield EJ (2016) "Comparative cranial myology and biomechanics of Plateosaurus and Camarasaurus and evolution of the sauropod feeding apparatus
". Palaeontology, 59: 887–913. doi:10.1111/pala.12266.
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